Associations among Motivations for Media Use, Academic Self-Efficacy, Procrastination, and Grit in College Students

Recent research has investigated the relationship between media use and grit, defined as trait-level “perseverance and passion for long-term goals” (Duckworth, et al. 2007, p. 1087) One limitation of this research is the focus on only amount of media use. Uses and Gratifications Theory suggests that there are a variety of reasons why individuals use media, and these different motivations alter media effects (e.g., Johnston, 1995). This study examined time spent with media and motivations for use. Another variable that might alter the relationship is “media dependency,” the degree to which individuals rely on a medium to achieve goals. Related research on “technology separation anxiety” has found that individuals physically separated from their mobile devices experience stress, especially if they are heavy users (e.g., Cheever et al., 2014). Therefore, this study examined media importance (including media dependency and technology separation anxiety) as a moderator of the relationship between media use and grit. Two additional variables that may influence the relationship between media use and grit are academic self-efficacy, an individual’s confidence in their ability to achieve academic success, and procrastination, the tendency to postpone activities. The current study examined academic self-efficacy and procrastination as mediators between media use and grit.